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- Writing for Publication
- Capstone Studies
- Learning Agreement (LA)
- Knowledge Area Module (KAM)
This page contains examples of several important features of KAM papers that you can reference as you write your own. It includes excerpts from actual papers, obtained with their authors' permission, written by Walden students, and it covers fundamental aspects of scholarly writing as well as the major attributes of each component of the KAM: the Breadth, Depth, and Application. For more information on writing a KAM, see the KAM guidebook and our preformatted KAM template. Also, see the KAM intensive page for information on attending a retreat designed specifically for KAM students.
Abstracts have specific formatting rules that should be followed. For example, page numbers should not appear on the abstract page, and the abstract should be flush left (rather than indented). Each abstract should be properly labeled with a heading that is centered and in plain text, and the abstract should be limited to 120 words or fewer. There should be an abstract for each section, Breadth, Depth, and Application, prior to the main text of the KAM.
In addition to the formatting requirements, each abstract should concisely summarize the subject, methods, purpose, and results of each KAM component. Think of it as being similar to the information on the back of a DVD case that lets you determine whether you want to watch that movie. Your abstract should give your readers a clear idea of what you cover in your KAM component and the conclusions you draw in it. Many students find it helpful to write their abstracts after they write their KAM components; that way, they have a clear idea of what their components include before they summarize them.
In this Breadth section, I explore the concept of the jury system and its historical context, growth, and development. I examine deliberative democratic theory and decision theory as they relate to the jury system. Further, I analyze how different jury systems across the world are conducted and have changed over time. I then examine the development of both civil and criminal law trial systems, notably in Canada, Germany, France, Australia, Britain, Brazil, India, China, Japan, and the United States. I further examine the effects of the jury system on social change in the administration of justice and public policy making. I conclude that there are genuine reasons for reforming the jury system. (Kennedy Marange, Breadth)
In this Breadth essay, I compare and contrast Bandura's model of self-efficacy with Benner's skill-acquisition model for novice registered nurses in emergency departments. In addition, I discuss the use of Knowles's theory of andragogy as a conceptual framework for these nurses. I also discuss the relevance of Benner's skill-acquisition stages to the development of emergency-room nurses. Lastly, I synthesize the theories of Bandura, Benner, and Knowles to develop a specific model and approach to emergency nursing care. (Laura Gallagher, Breadth)
In these abstracts, the students summarize the topics of their Breadth components and list the chief theories that they examine in these portions of their KAMs. Note that these students also include clear purposes for their Breadth sections--in the first example, the student's Breadth lays a theoretical groundwork for reforming the jury system, and in the second example the student uses the theories she read to develop a learning model for emergency-room nurses.
The conclusions I made in the Breadth component form the foundation for contemporary research in the Depth component, in which I examine scholarly literature on moral decision making and its effect on the establishment of business legitimacy. Furthermore, in the Depth component, I compare and contrast the conceptual framework of Bandura, Kohlberg, and Skinner with current literature as they relate to the development of moral reasoning for accounting professionals. I then identify 3 major influences on the decision-making process of accounting professionals. If accounting professionals had a better understanding of these influences, they could more easily avoid the effects of bias in their business decisions. (Delores King, Depth)
In the Depth component, I examine current research on social-emotional development and its impact on learning. For this investigation, I examine current scholarly articles on the effects of poverty on emotional development. Integrating the themes of the Breadth and the current research of the Depth, I have used this section of the KAM to provide educators with knowledge on the influence the environment has on the emotional development of children. Furthermore, educators will be able to identify this influence and will be better able to support the emotional intelligence of their students. (Anneka Wiggins, Depth)
In these abstracts, each author describes the topic of her Depth component, the methods she uses to explore that topic, and the connection between the ideas in her Breadth and the ideas in her Depth. As with the Breadth abstracts, each author also includes a clear purpose for the Depth component.
In this application, I use the knowledge gained from the Breadth and Depth components to develop business strategies that entrepreneurs can use to form alliances with the Small Businesses Administration. The goal of this Application is to help entrepreneurs raise capital for their businesses by partnering with the Small Business Administration, which could lead to greater profitability for their businesses. The Application contains a business plan model that entrepreneurs can incorporate into their own business operations. (Wesley Palmer, Application)
For the Application component, I design and implement a new national prevention program for workplace violence involving postal service employees. In a PowerPoint presentation and an informational paper, I link the theoretical concepts from the Breadth and Depth with the Application objectives to identify and employ techniques and strategies to decrease occupational stress, reduce occupational stressors, and prevent workplace violence. (Gregory Campbell, Application)
Each student here uses concise language to give readers a clear understanding of his Application component’s design and the way that it could lead to social change. He also specifies how the Application builds on the theories and analysis of his Breadth and Depth sections.
In the Breadth component, you will explore the ideas of the foundational theorists in the field you are studying, and you will draw conclusions from these theories that will inform your research of current literature in the Depth and your project in the Application.
In the Breadth component of KAM I, I address social change through the works of theorists Lauer, Toffler, Toffler, Toynbee, Lewin, and Alinsky, and I analyze the major concepts of each. I also use Lauer's myths of social change to compare and contrast the arguments of the other authors. Finally, I highlight both historical and more contemporary works to give a broad range of perspectives on social change. These I can further explore in the Depth component. (Patricia Bresser, Breadth)
In this paragraph, the student introduces the theorists she has read and the theories that she analyzes in her Breadth. She also offers a brief description of the methods she uses in this component of her KAM as well as the purpose of her Breadth research.
In this component, I explore the ideas advanced by several theorists whose contributions have caused significant discussion within the domain of human development. Each theorist has observed ways in which culture and nature have had an impact on human development and therefore sees human beings as a part of a larger context in a multicultural environment. The areas I cover will include but not be limited to biological, sociocultural, cognitive, moral, and psychological aspects of human development spanning the historical spectrum from Aristotle to Freud. I then synthesize these authors' ideas to develop a theoretical framework of human development. (Mark Bignell, Breadth)
This student begins his Breadth with a description of the broad themes he covers in this component, as well as specific topics and authors that he addresses. He finishes his opening paragraph by stating a clear purpose for his Breadth component. Note that this student provided only enough background information to give his readers a clear understanding of his topic, and as a result this paragraph is short and concise, containing just over 100 words.
Body of the Breadth
Use of a Block Quotation
In the postpositivist era, other paradigms exist that contrast sharply with the positivist and empiricist epistemologies discussed previously. Merriam (1998) noted thatthe key philosophical assumption … upon which all types of qualitative research are based is the view that reality is constructed by individuals interacting with their social worlds. Qualitative researchers are interested in understanding the meaning people have constructed, that is, how they make sense of their world and the experiences they have in the world. (p. 6)
These key philosophical assumptions apply to this study because, as a qualitative ethnographic study, the intent of the research is to understand and interpret the meanings people have constructed concerning the organizational culture of which they are a part. (Robert Gerulat, dissertation)
This is an example of an integration of a direct quotation in block formatting. Because the quotation contains more than 40 words, APA style guidelines require that it be formatted as a block quotation. The block quotation, unlike a normal direct quotation, does not have quotation marks and is indented by 1 half-inch. Notice that the student also explains exactly why he uses this quotation so that his readers will understand its significance. Please note that direct quotation should be used sparingly, and when used they should flow naturally and logically within the sentence. In the majority of situations, you should paraphrase a source rather than quoting it directly.
Use of a Direct Quotation and Paraphrasing
According to Lauer (1991), in order to understand social change, one not only has to define it; one has to evaluate the myths that surround it. For some, social change occurs with a change in attitude by an individual or group. For others, social change results from a change in a social structure or organization. Lauer's perspective was that "social change is an inclusive concept that refers to alterations in social phenomena at various levels of human life from the individual to the global" (p. 4). Some of the levels he described include organizations, community, and society. Lauer believed that social change is evident whenever there is "alteration at any level of social life" (p. 6). The direction of the change and how rapidly or slowly the change occurs should be the focus of study. Invariably there is a relationship between change on one level and change on another.
For instance, an individual's attitude about affirmative action may lead that individual to try to effect change in the company (institution) for which she or he works. However, Lauer (2009) cautioned that one cannot assume that change on one level (individual) will automatically lead to change on another (organization). (Patricia Bresser, Breadth)
In this paraphrase, the student effectively puts most of her source's ideas into her own words, which allows her to clearly and concisely connect these ideas to her own argument. She also includes direct quotations, but she only uses them when the author's exact wording helps to accurately describe an idea, and she integrates them into her own text.
Effective Use of Secondary Sources
Bandura (as cited in Crain, 1992) has been criticized for minimizing the impact or interplay of developmental stages in learning because he argued that the child's environment was more of an influence on new behaviors than was the child's intrinsic desire to learn new skills. The followers of Piaget, focused on the cognitive processes of the child rather than the influences in the immediate environment, are particularly prone to this position (Holm, 1995). Bandura also drew criticism for raising questions about Kohlberg's stages of moral development in children (as cited in Crain, 1992). Like Skinner, Bandura (as cited in Crain, 1992) focused on observable behavior instead of hypothesizing about what occurs during the thinking process.
Bandura's disagreement with these developmental theorists stems from a weakness in the social learning approach in which theorists examine the "black box," or the brain as the cognitive and emotional center, from the outside rather than the inside (Johnson, 1989; Bandura, as cited in Crain, 1992). In contrast, Bandura's work offers little acknowledgment of internal thought processes responsible for creativity and individuality. Indeed, if Bandura is to be believed, people are great imitators, using their cognitive skills to choose who they will imitate. While the self-efficacy appraisal is a form of reflection, there is no generalization of that sort of self-evaluation to the human condition, to an appreciation of the human capacity for philosophy, art, and love. (Diana White, Breadth)
In the first paragraph, the writer states the criticism of Bandura and determines if there is any basis for it. Then, in the second paragraph, she expands on this criticism, adding her own reasons and arguments. Also, this student effectively uses a secondary source to support her own ideas about the theories that the secondary source addresses. Note that she uses secondary source citation rather than the standard citation style to indicate to her readers that her source is secondary (i.e., cited within a work by another author) rather than primary. Secondary sources are acceptable within academic writing as long as they are kept to a minimum. You should use secondary sources only if you are unable to find or retrieve the original source of information.
Effective Synthesis of the Literature
Sperry (1996) added that structure specifies how an individual in a role should perform. In most cases, a performance appraisal can be used to measure how well an individual is performing in a given role (Sperry, 1996). Finally, the structure subsystem is responsible for helping to control and coordinate information to and from other systems, such as subsystems and the suprasystem (Sperry, 1996).
This structural subsystem most closely aligns with Goffman's thoughts on interaction rituals. Goffman (1982) explained that individuals carry out actions instinctively when those actions are governed by specific sets of rules. In other words, in the structural subsystem, a clear definition of the rules surrounding each role will lead to the employees carrying out their respective roles on a nearly automatic level; they will know what to do and when to do it. One could argue that Bandura's (1995) social cognitive theory also lends credence to this subsystem classification. While Goffman's (1963) ideas reveal that employees will carry out each task without conscious thought, Bandura's ideas expose how the employees reach that level of action. Bandura's social cognitive theory also identifies the ways employees learn the methods required to carry out their actions, such as mastery experiences, vicarious experiences, social persuasions, and interpretations of their own emotional state at a given time. (Adam Jones, Breadth)
In this student's synthesis, he not only conveys his sources' ideas; he also uses those ideas to advance his own argument. For example, he connects Sperry's ideas about the structural subsystem to Goffman's ideas about interaction rituals and Bandura's social cognitive theory, synthesizing a foundation based in scholarly literature for the conclusions he will make later in his Breadth. Notice, too, that this student does not restrict each author to his or her own paragraph; instead, the student cites each of these authors in multiple paragraphs. He bases the structure of this portion of his paper around his own ideas rather than the ideas of the authors he cites. This student also makes sure to include a citation, per APA style, whenever he uses the words or ideas of another author.
In the Breadth component, I explored the theoretical underpinnings of organizational and social systems from the perspectives of Bertalanffy (general systems theory), Passmore (sociotechnical systems theory), and Scott (organizational systems theory) to understand the relationship between systems and subsystems in the workforce. These theorists all emphasized the importance of understanding, predicting, and controlling the influence of the environment and technology on organizational change or redesign. In the final analysis, the comprehensive examination of Bertalanffy, Passmore, and Scott contained philosophical and practical strategies to evaluate the interrelationship between the USPS and USPIS and to employ techniques and strategies to decrease occupational stress and reduce occupational stressors.
From their unique perspectives, Bertalanffy, Passmore, and Scott provided system techniques to implement organizational change. For example, Bertalanffy (1975, 1968) argued that traditional problem-solving techniques are no longer effective to execute organizational change in an increasingly complex society. Consequently, Bertalanffy (1975) asserted that an open system approach should be utilized when assessing social systems or organizations. In fact, Bertalanffy (1975) stated that understanding comes from the investigation of the entire system and the interrelationship of its parts.
Similar to Bertalanffy, Passmore (1988) emphasized the importance of interrelationships between systems and subsystems. As I noted previously, he argued that social, technical, and environmental systems all influence the success of organizational change or redesign (Passmore, 1988). Furthermore, he defined joint optimization as social and technical systems working together in harmony (Passmore, 1988).
Finally, Scott (2008, 2003) argued that organizations are the leading force of change within social systems, and they affect every area of life. In fact, Scott and Davis (2007) stated that the study of organizations has led to a better understanding of people and society. Whereas Bertalanffy and Passmore asserted that environmental factors influence organizations, Scott and Davis emphasized that organizations are ubiquitous, and they influence status, power, personality, and performance. As I noted previously, Scott and Davis provide techniques from a rational, natural, and open system-perspective on how to manage organizational change. (Gregory Campbell, Breadth)
In his conclusion section, this student summarizes all of the major points he makes in his Breadth, including the foundational theories he examined and the ways that they connect to his topic. Notice that he goes beyond a "bullet point" summary and leaves the reader with an understanding of how he will use these theories in the later components of his KAM.
In the Depth component of your KAM, you will review current literature in your chosen field, familiarize yourself with the research methodology used by these authors, and identify gaps in the literature where you can make a scholarly contribution. The conclusions you draw in the Breadth should inform the research you conduct in your Depth, and you will conduct this research in your annotated bibliography and Depth essay.
Arter, M. (2008). Stress and deviance in policing. Deviant Behavior, 29(1), 43-69. doi: 10.1080/01639620701457774
In this article, Arter stated that policing is a highly stressful occupation; however, he asserted that the level of stress varied based upon assignment. Arter reported the findings of a qualitative study conducted at two large metropolitan police departments in the South that deployed officers in undercover capacities to investigate crimes. The researcher noted that current literature primarily focused on juvenile delinquency when examining general strain theory. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to extend the empirical application of general strain theory to a high-stressed adult population, specifically police officers on undercover assignments.
Arter pointed out that since the early 20th century criminologists have used strain theories to describe crime and delinquency. For the purpose of this study, he used general strain theory as a theoretical framework to test the application of the theory on a high-stressed adult population and to determine how officers in different policing assignments cope with stress and deviance. He utilized phenomenological methodology to mitigate one of the criticisms of the general strain theory: that individuals experiencing the same or similar circumstances often react differently to deviance or delinquency.
Arter's research added to the general strain theory with regards to the concept of deviance beyond acts labeled as delinquent or criminal and confirmed his hypothesis that the application of the theory could be extended to an adult population. Arter found further support of strain theory in the coping strategies utilized by undercover officers to reduce strain. For example, officers who employed adaptive coping strategies reported less deviance than those who used maladaptive strategies. Arter provided a comprehensive evaluation of the strengths and limitations of Agnew’s general strain theory, but he also noted that his finding could be explained using other theories, such as subculture theory, social support theory, cognitive dissonance, or differential association.
One of the limitations of the study included the lack of current literature comparing the adult populations to juvenile populations. Although the population included two large police departments, the sample size was somewhat small due to the number of officers working in undercover assignments. Despite its limitations, this article is useful for this KAM because it provides empirical data related to occupational stress in policing and how assignments influence the level of stress that police officers experience. (Gregory Campbell, Depth)
Gathman, A. C., & Nessan, C. L. (1997). Fowler's stages of faith development in an honors science-and-religion seminar. Zygon, 32(3), 407–414. Retrieved from http://www.zygonjournal.org/
Gathman and Nessan described the construction and rationale of an honors course in science and religion that was pedagogically based on Lawson's learning cycle model. In this course, each student writes a short paper on a subject before presenting the material to the group, and then he or she writes a longer paper reevaluating his or her views from the first paper. Using content analysis, the authors compared the answers in the first and second essays, evaluating them based on Fowler's stages of development. Examples of student writing are presented with the authors' analysis of the faith stage exhibited by the students, which demonstrated development in Stages 2 through 5.
The authors made no specific effort to support spiritual development in the course. They were interested in the interface between religion and science, teaching material on ways of knowing, creation myths, evolutionary theory, and ethics. They exposed students to Fowler's ideas, but they did not relate the faith development theory to student work in the classroom. There appears to have been no effort to modify the course content based on the predominant stage of development, and it is probably a credit to their teaching that they were able to conduct such a course with such diversity in student faith development. However, because Fowler's work is based largely within a Western Christian setting, some attention to differences in faith among class members would have been a useful addition to the study. There was no correlation between grades and level of faith development.
Fowler's work would seem to lend itself to research of this sort, but this is the only example found in recent literature. This study demonstrates the best use of Fowler's model, which is assessment. While the theory claimed high predictive ability, the change process chronicled is so slow and idiosyncratic that it would be difficult to design and implement research that had as its goal measurement of movement along the faith development continuum. (Diana White, Breadth)
In each of these examples, the student first provides a concise summary of the article that he or she read, including the subject of the article, the methods and theories that formed the basis of the research, and the authors' findings. The student then assesses the article critically, pointing out the strengths and weaknesses of the research, as well as describing the author's (or authors') methodology. Finally, the student includes a brief statement of the article's value to his or her own research.
Note that, while the phrase "the authors" is normally not used in APA style, it is permissible in an annotation because your readers will understand which authors you are referring to in your text because you have included a reference. Similarly, in an annotation you do not need to include citations, as you will only be discussing the source you have referenced.
Experiential education is the process by which a student attains knowledge through a meaningful learning experience (Bruner, 1966; Itin, 1999). Experiential education, part of the progressive movement, contrasts with the traditional methods of education. As stated in the Breadth, progressive education is student focused and contains intentional, meaningful learning experiences (Dewey, 1938). The practice of experiential education by teachers is meant to enhance content-area knowledge by providing experiences that students can draw from when faced with new experiences. The students gain skills in collaborating, strategizing, reflecting, and self-evaluating through the experiential learning cycle (Kolb, 1984).
In this essay, I will look at experiential education from different perspectives. In the first section, I analyze research on how students learn experientially. People learn in different ways, and research that compares and contrasts experiential methods with didactic methods of learning could help educators understand the practice of experiential education. (Raelyn Viti, Depth)
In this example, the student provides context for the subject of her Depth component and introduces the major theorists whose work she will examine. She also connects the theories in her Depth to the conclusions she made in her Breadth, as well as introducing the topic of her literature-review essay.
The subject of ethics is a popular topic in business today, as there have been many scandals recently that have made consumers wary of corporations and the business industry (Allis-Fry, 2009). The Breadth component provided some background on moral development theory in humans. Building on this theoretical foundation, the Depth component will address the current literature in the area of business ethics, as well as how these theories have evolved over the years. Also, I will analyze the effects of these theories on business practices today and identify practices that could benefit from the application of these theories (Neely Elstrodt, Depth)
Though this is a brief introduction, the student introduces the Depth's subject, context, and theoretical background, as well as its purpose and the ways it connects to the ideas in the Breadth.
Using a Direct Quotation and Paraphrasing
Ortega et al. (2007) argued that physical and psychological work demands were significant factors of increased officer stress. As a result, Ortega et al. argued that police officers use a variety of coping strategies to correct the imbalance or reduce the amount of occupational stress. Ortega et al. defined occupational stress as “the transaction between the person and their work environment, where stress arises from the imbalance between perceived demands and perceived resources to deal with those demands” (p. 38). They defined coping as the process that a person uses to reduce or eliminate the imbalance between demands and perceived resources available to address the demands (Ortega et al., 2007). (Gregory Campbell, Depth)
Bandura (1995) defined perceived self-efficacy as "beliefs in one's capabilities to organize and execute the courses of action required to manage prospective situations" (p. 2). That is, when a person believes that he or she is capable of performing in nearly any situation, he or she has a high level of perceived self-efficacy. Such a person has an advantage in a variety of situations over a person who assumes that he or she cannot perform in that environment. It is important to note that Bandura (2007) did not argue that a person's ability to perform leads to a high level of perceived self-efficacy; instead, he argued that a person's belief in his or her ability results in such a perception. A person having a great deal of self-doubt in his or her efficacy sees little point in even attempting to perform in a situation (Bandura, 2007). In the case of correctional education, if a potential learner has enough doubt in his or her ability to attempt learning in a classroom, he or she would likely not make that attempt. (Adam Jones, Depth)
In both of these examples, the students concisely cover the main points of the authors they discuss by paraphrasing and quoting their authors' texts. Note that each only uses a direct quotation when the author's exact words help to convey an idea.
Synthesizing the Literature
Answering employees' questions can increase their acceptance of change and promote their engagement in both the organization and the change process ("Kaiser Permanente," 2008; "MasterCard Worldwide," 2008; Stragalas, 2010). This follows the idea that the change process should involve some compromise between the organization and employees. Furthermore, complete transparency can help to eliminate some of the complexity inherent in the change process (Eddy, 2003). Such complexity, when paired with the difficulty of adapting to change, can make even the best employees resistant to change. Transparency helps to combat this issue by providing a number of ways to increase employee buy-in. As Eddy (2003) asserted, it is imperative to gain buy-in at all levels to achieve lasting change in an organization.
Additionally, Stragalas (2010) argued that sharing specific details about the change will help to eliminate any difficulties. Steele-Johnson et al. (2010) echoed these sentiments when they reported that revealing all of the details about a change process can help those involved better understand and support the change. Steele-Johnson et al. also asserted that a high level of transparency during the change can help those involved prepare for and welcome the change. Similarly, Nahata et al. (2010) showed that transparency through excessive communication can allow for a wider range of acceptance of the change. Maintaining clear communication with employees during an organizational change, then, can contribute to those employees' acceptance of the change.
Failure to include a high level of transparency in a change process can cause confusing situations or moments of uncertainty between the leadership team and the employees affected by the change process (Stoelinga, 2010). Eddy's (2003) examination of change in community colleges supported this claim with an example of a lack of transparency that triggered a great deal of uncertainty. In Eddy's study, he found that many members of the change were unsure of where the change would lead them, how they would participate in the change, and why they would even want to support the change. Because of these transparency breakdowns, the change process became challenging and difficult for employees (Eddy, 2003). Bacon et al. (2010) also found that a lack of transparency could lead to a situation where uncertainty can lead to rebellion in response to the change initiative. (Adam Jones, Depth)
This student effectively paraphrases the ideas of several authors and connects their ideas to his own, a process called synthesis which helps to advance his overall argument. For example, he connects the ideas of Eddy and Stragalas to those of Steele-Johnson et al., Nahata et al., and Bacon et al. to bolster his argument that transparency is a vital component of organizational change.
In the Breadth component, Bertalanffy's general system theory provided the theoretical foundation for understanding the importance of the interrelationship between the USPS and USPIS, including the influence of the postal reorganization, economic hardships, government restrictions, downsizing, and the acceleration of modern technology. In the Depth component, I illustrated how the Postal Reorganization Act and Postal Accountability Enhancement Act changed the way the USPS conducted business, which also influenced the operations of the USPIS. Additionally, when Congress created an independent Office of Inspector General (OIG) for the USPS, the USPIS underwent significant changes in its organizational structure, including the transfer of over 200 postal inspectors to the OIG (USPS, 2007). All of these factors illustrate one of the major findings of the literature review: that organizational factors influence occupational stress more than traumatic events.
Another common theme of current literature was that policing is a highly stressful occupation; however, researchers differed as to whether organizational or operational factors were more of an influence on officer stress. For example, Collins and Gibbs (2003) found that organizational issues were more of a determinant of officer stress than operational factors. Additionally, Huddleston et al. (2007) argued that organizational factors have more of an influence on psychological well-being than operational concerns. In contrast, Brough (2004) found that operational stressors are directly relational to traumatic stress and psychological strain. All these themes are relevant to the USPIS, as the organization is currently experiencing challenges with operational stressors, organizational stressors, and traumatic incidents. All of these could lead to a postal inspector having occupational stress, psychological strain, or PTSD.
Finally, the issue of workplace violence has resurfaced as a major issue for the USPS and USPIS. After nearly a decade of low rates of assaults, robberies, and homicides, the Postal Service experienced an increase in these kinds of violence between 2000 and 2010 (USPIS, 2010). The current workplace environment leads, therefore, to the Application project: to redesign and implement a new national prevention program for workplace violence, which involves the USPIS and USPS. (Gregory Campbell, Depth)
This student begins his Depth conclusion by briefly summarizing the foundational theories and conclusions of his Breadth, and he follows this with the major points of his Depth, including the context of his subject and the findings of his literature review. He finishes by identifying the connections between his Depth and his Application, which sets up the next component of his KAM for the reader.
In your Application component, you will identify an opportunity for social change in your profession and apply the information you gathered in your Breadth and Depth by developing a project to achieve this change. The Application component should include two main parts: a description of the project you developed and a reflection on the project's results.
In recent years there has been a significant increase in the recognition of gerontology as an area of health care practice. Health care providers have formed more gerontological and geriatric professional societies, and health care organizations have directed more research dollars toward issues in aging (Ferraro, 1997). Because the population of older people is growing quickly (Ferraro, 1997), it seems natural that a strong interest has developed in the health care of these people.
In 1998, Allegheny University of the Health Sciences (AUHS) performed a needs assessment in the greater Philadelphia region and determined that the local health care community would benefit from the implementation of a graduate-level gerontological nurse practitioner program at the university. Statistics provided by the national nurse practitioner certifying board revealed that there was a proportionally low number of nurse practitioners certified in gerontology in this geographic location (AUHS, 1998). As a result, the university decided to develop a curriculum to implement such a program. The national certifying body published a program outline, identifying the general areas that should be incorporated into any gerontological nurse practitioner curriculum, and the university used this outline as a general reference for developing the curriculum (AUHS, 1998). The board-certified gerontological nurse practitioner on the faculty developed the curriculum's specific content, and, after its completion, an advisory board consisting of board-certified geriatricians (medical doctors), a gerontological nurse practitioner, and a gerontologist reviewed the curriculum (Davis & Florence, 2000). The advisory board offered two minor suggestions for change that the university incorporated into the course objectives (Davis & Florence, 2000). The final curriculum was approved by the Pennsylvania Boards of Nursing and Medicine and the state Department of Higher Education (Davis & Florence, 2000).
In the Application component, I will analyze this curriculum with respect to the theories of aging presented in the Breadth demonstration and the scholarly research and publications discussing normal aging in the Depth demonstration. Administrators of the AUHS gerontology program could then use these findings to ensure that their curriculum is aligned with current developments in the field of gerontology. (Sally Miller, Application)
In the opening to this student's Application, she begins by giving the reader sufficient context (i.e., the growing recognition of gerontology as a health care specialty) to understand the purpose of her Application project, the analysis of a graduate-level gerontology curriculum. She also connects her Application to the theories she covered in her Breadth and Depth, which she will use in her analysis of this curriculum.
Based on the information presented in the Depth and Breadth components, employee resistance is obviously a complex aspect of organizational change. While many change leaders recognize resistance when it happens, many do not know how to diagnose potential resistance accurately prior to the start of a change initiative. One type of initiative common within organizations involves changes in information technology (IT), which can impact employees in numerous ways. In this Application, I will discuss the role of IT in organizational change, explore issues of employee resistance specific to IT change initiatives, and create a presentation of these concepts to help change leaders develop plans to effectively manage employee resistance. (Jodine Burchell, Application)
Though this example is shorter than the first one, this student also provides sufficient context for her Application project, its connections to the ideas in her Depth and Breadth, and the project’s goals and purpose.
Description of the Project
In this Application project, I utilize the principles of Passmore to achieve joint optimization by incorporating the social and technical systems of the USPS and USPIS into the redesign process of the prevention campaign. For example, USPS employees at all levels will participate in the development of brochures, videos, and other forms of prevention material. The postmaster general and his executive staff will be an essential element in the development and deployment of the prevention campaign to all postal employees. From a technical standpoint, I will utilize the most innovative technology available to deliver the prevention message, including redesigning all of the brochures and videos. In addition to postal inspectors conducting in-person training at postal facilities, the prevention videos will play on the postal television network.
Building upon the organizational and social principles of the Breadth component, current literature illustrated the importance of the interrelationship between systems and subsystems, specifically the USPS and USPIS. For instance, the literature review on law enforcement and occupational stress showed that organizational factors influence occupational stress more than traumatic events. This concept will be essential to the deployment of the prevention campaign because postal inspectors provide the training to postal employees and experience frequent exposure to traumatic incidents (Johnson, 2008). Therefore, it is critical to understand how organizational factors affect the postal inspectors responsible for ensuring the safety and security of the USPS.
Prior to rolling out a national campaign on workplace violence, it is important for postal inspectors to understand the psychological well being of the employees implementing the program. Most researchers in current literature agreed that policing is a highly stressful occupation (Jackson-Marsh, 2008; Stephens & Williams, 2010); however, some differed as to whether organizational or operational factors were more of an influence on stress levels (Clarke, 2009; Macaulay et al., 2009). Regardless of the cause, stakeholders need to consider stress levels when implementing a national prevention program for workplace violence that could potentially add to the current operational and organizational stressors of the USPIS. To that end, I plan to employ Passmore's (2008) sociotechnical principles of redesign to reduce or eliminate the potential occupational stress of deploying a new prevention campaign.
Presently, for the USPS and USPIS, the issue of workplace violence has resurfaced as a major issue with the increase in assaults, robberies, and homicides on postal workers. Although this Application project will focus on prevention efforts, it will also include information about the causes of workplace violence, including violence in media, autocratic work environments, domestic violence, anger, and alienation (Madero & Schanowitz, 2004). Research from the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) also informed this project. For example, the BLS (2010) showed how economic factors influenced the total number of fatal work injuries in the U.S., which decreased by 17% in 2009. Workplace homicides only decreased by 1%, but the BLS reported a 21% decrease in fatalities among emergency service employees, including police officers, fire fighters, prevention workers, and security guards. Although overall occupational fatalities reached an all time low in 2009, the USPS has already experienced four employee homicides in 2010 versus none in 2009, which has contributed to the renewed prevention efforts in workplace violence (USPIS, 2010).
As previously stated, this employee security initiative targets workplace conflict at all levels before it escalates to violence, a focus that has proven to be the most effective. The initiative is one part of a broad range of security and crime prevention messages designed to safeguard employees, protect postal assets, and secure the infrastructure of the organization. (Gregory Campbell, Application)
This student details the problem his project is designed to address (i.e., workplace violence for postal workers), the project’s theoretical foundations (which stem from his Breadth and Depth components), and the methods he will use to carry out the project.
Reflection on the Results
In the Depth component, I identified five themes from the current literature. I used these five themes, along with the overall ideas of Bandura, Erikson, Goffman, and Lewin, to create the VICTOR program, which has a goal of helping students help themselves. It is purposefully designed to be simple and modular. The simplicity and modularity of the program allow for its rapid expansion, if necessary, and drastic reduction when warranted. The VICTOR program, while not actually implemented, could easily be used to provide a much-needed boost to individuals and businesses. When a person is incarcerated, he or she is usually added to a corrections or rehabilitation system, yet these systems are not readily available in most areas. A program such as VICTOR, which incurs few costs, could provide benefits to prisons, prisoners, local businesses, local banks, local staffing firms, and communities in general. These benefits derive from the increased ability of incarcerated persons to find jobs and change their behavior for the better. This cannot happen, though, without the proper effort. If businesses, banks, staffing firms, and prisons can work together for the greater good of their communities, everyone stands to benefit. (Adam Jones, Application)
In this reflection, the student concisely evaluates the expected results of his Application project and justifies his conclusions with the findings of the earlier components of this KAM. Note that, while he has not yet implemented his Application project, he anticipates the results that the project might have.
Tables, Figures, References, and Appendices
In the body of your KAM, information that does not appear in textual form must be formatted and labeled as either a table or figure. The Publication Manul of the American Psychological Association does not allow for the words graph, illustration, or chart. Refer to this information as either a table or a figure.
It is important that you number tables and figures consecutively: Table 1, Table 2, Figure 1, Figure 2. If you have four tables and then a figure, you will still label it Figure 1 as this is the first figure.
Place the word Table and the table number above the table, flush left. Place the title of the table (in title case), double-spaced, under the table number, flush left in italics. Double-, triple-, or quadruple-space before and after the table; be consistent. APA allows for the use of horizontal lines but not vertical lines within a table.
Information regarding abbreviations or symbols used in a table, copyright information, and probability must be located in a Note below the table. See section 5.16 in the APA manual for more formatting information.
Comparison of Boys and Girls by Height and Weight
Variable Height Weight
Boys (n=61) 5 ft 1 in 104 lb
Girls (n=60) 5 ft 2 in 98 lb
Note. From "Analysis of Seventh Graders' Hormones," by W. Steeves, 2008, Journal of Despair, 98, p. 11. Copyright 2008 from the American Psychological Association.
Place the word Figure and the figure number under the figure, flush left in italics. The title of the figure goes next to the number in sentence case.
The figure below appears in the Publication Guide of the American Psychological Association (2009, p. 153):
For more information and examples on properly formatting tables and figures, please see our Tables and Figures page and sections 5.07-5.30 in the 6th edition of the APA manual.
Your references for the sources you cite in your Breadth, Depth, and Application should all appear in a global reference list at the end of your KAM. See our APA references resources for more information on formatting your reference list.
Use an appendix for supplemental information that would distract from the narrative of your KAM if it were included in the main text. For example, you could use an appendix to provide the full text of a survey used in your research, a figure that supports but does not directly relate to your argument, or a list of technical terms relevant to your topic. Appendices appear at the end of your document, after the reference list, and each one begins with a Level 0 heading containing the word Appendix. If you have more than one appendix, the first heading of each one will also have a capital letter to differentiate the appendices from one another, such as Appendix A, Appendix B, and Appendix C. If these appendices contain tables, then number them Table A1, A2, and so forth. APA does not mandate style standards for appendices, but in general your appendix should follow the same rules for formatting and organization used in the main text of your paper. See this page for more on using appendices in your scholarly writing, and click here to view an example appendix.